What Is Horoscope?

A horoscope is an astrological chart or diagram representing the Positions of the Sun, Moon, planets, astrological aspects, and sensitive angles at the time of

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Timeline Of Astrology

Astrology, A walk through Some Common Questions still alive in people mind Astrology was a spiritual spa to the ignorant and lost. Commoners saw the

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The Islamic Astrology

The Golden Islamic Period (8th century – 14th century): After the Greeks, it was the Arabs who took astrology to the next level. They began

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Some Common Questions still alive in people mind

Astrology was a spiritual spa to the ignorant and lost. Commoners saw the solutions to their problems whereas those submerged in the vast knowledge saw ‘the truth of everything’. It would seem a bit vague when it is put in such a way but that is the actual fact nonetheless. It was regarded as the handy guide to everything that was ever needed back then.

Even in today’s world, why people seek out astrologer?

Ever since the developments in technology began to increase exponentially, mankind, that was one with nature, began to move away from such aspects of the tradition. Man, who was born to rule over the planets, other life forms, land, sea and sky slowly lost sight of what it meant to be himself. He distanced himself from everything he once held close so much and stood separate from nature itself. After prolonged exposure to such lethargic attitudes and a few generations of similar ignorance, he is now the greatest threat to himself and everything around him.

The aforementioned incompetent astrologers were considered one among the top tier of hierarchy in terms of social stature. though fewer in number, play the major role in driving away the tiny bit of belief within some people. Where people constantly seek out astrologers For every important aspect of their life like childbirth, education, profession, vastu, engagement, marriage, death, anniversaries and even for the prospects of vehicles. Government point of view Any new projects, schemes or acts of government would be run by them by the kings themselves before implementing. In rural areas astrologers are sought upon for panchayats, town functions and temple related activities. Political point of view To take it a step further, politicians, even the party leaders, are constantly checked for the stand of their horoscopes. It Should go without saying that this practice intensifies during the electoral times. But it is evident that people have fallen behind in their beliefs on astrology. A part of it lies with the individuals who question the legitimacy of traditional beliefs, a part of it lies with the incompetent astrologers and a part lies with the inevitable quality in the nature of everything – change. People mindset and today’s Modern Astrologers One common quality held by all types of people is that they do not conform to the basic ethics of astrology “No astrologer shall act against his conscience”. Kind of Astrologers in Modern world In today most of the astrologer prefer to put forth only the positives instead of doing the same along with sugarcoating the negatives while delivering their clients’ horoscopes. Some treat their closed ones and others with partiality in terms of fee. A few others target the rich ones and work on a bang-for-the-buck basis. Then there are those who blurt out whatever they learnt from the ancient scriptures and those who give standard presets that do next to nothing to their clients. How to understand the fact of Real Astrology and Astrologers? Astrology is nothing but a science it is Sastra The word “Sastra” means ‘Religions, scientific’ and hence cannot be confined to any one particular religion. God is the first and absolute scientist as well as knowledge itself. To understand knowledge, astrology is vital. Not only does astrology confirm with religious preachings, it also falls in line with science. Only astrology has the ability to convey a man’s past, present and future.

Have you ever looked up at a clear night sky, felt the magic of so many twinkling bright stars, and wondered whether there is any special meaning in the patterns they make?                 THE BIRTH

Millennia of observations on the changes in the sky and the events on Earth showed that there was a connection between the two. This connection was passed on orally from generation to generation. All the observations and the information involved with the basic and simple astrology were trusted with certain families. These families then went on to further closely examine and understand the things happening above and around them. So, that’s when the study of Astrology began its baby steps.


As time passed, Astrology twisted together with divinity and these families grew to be well respected. Once writing came into existence, the families wrote down the knowledge passed on to them by their forefathers, along with that which they learned on their own, as notes and laws. The initial astrology was confined to important parts of that time like crop yields, rains, winds, kings and wars. “Astrology was the real mother of modern astronomy”. The ancient astrologers thought that the planets were gods who ruled people’s lives. Modern astrologers no longer believe this, but they do still believe that in some fascinating way there is a relationship between the Sun, the Moon, the planets and the lives of each one of us.

Trivia Venus was added to the line of Gods c. 3000 BC, a time period belonging to one of the first civilizations – Sumer. This was also right in the middle of the chrysalis of the birth of writing. It was believed that love making would last longer when Venus was high in the sky. However, the first temple dedicated to her was only around 295 BC.

The word Astrology is derived from two Greek words, Astra, a star, and Logos, logic or reason. It truly suggests the principle and law as appeared by the stars or planets. Our universe is loaded with a wide range of astonishing energies. The study of Astrology enables us to figure out these energies. It is anything but not a religion so we aren’t needed to begin having faith in anything, and we don’t have to have confidence in it for it to work. Astrology mixes science and gut feeling, magic and mathematics, cycles and symbols. It centers around planets and their seasons, and planets are real. Truth be told, they’re real to the point that their developments are known beforehand and recordable. “It is the root to fulfill your past and present karma and to attain eternal happiness”


Astrology sees mankind as being not only influenced by hereditary factors and the environment, but also by the state of our solar system at the moment of birth. The planets are regarded as basic life-forces, the tools we live by as well as the basis of our very substance. These planetary forces take on different forms, depending on their zodiacal position and on the way they relate to one another. The aspects formed between the planets describe these relationships, the positions of the planets in relation to the place of birth tell us of their expression in the spheres of life depicted by the astrological houses. By interpreting the roles of these planets and their qualities like the elements, signs and houses and creating a synthesis, astrology is able to present a complete and comprehensive picture of the person and his potential, based on the natal horoscope. ADVENT OF GOD IN ASTROLOGY It is true that the early man lived in caves. He needed a shelter, specifically to safeguard himself from the predators of the night. Since they weren’t blessed with night vision, they had to secure a place that made sure of their survival to the next day. Sunset drove fear into the hearts of those poor critters. Dawn, however, brought about a happy feeling. They became aware of that the white circle in the sky brought all the light along with it in regular period of time. As centuries passed, long before the first civilization and the idea of writing appeared, humans began to create Gods and Goddesses. Whatever terrified them, whatever granted them limited portions, whatever made them feel safe, and whatever made them happy and happy and satisfied were all interpreted as God – an entity believed to be extremely powerful. A good example is the “Sun God” who drove away the gloomy dark. In some parts, way back when, a few tribes worshiped all their ancestors who had passed on to the other side. The Dravidians were one such group. They were also the ones who deified the five elements to Bhoomadevi (Goddess of Earth), Vaayubhagavan (God of Air), Varunabhagavan (God of Rain), Agnidevani (God of Fire), and Aagayakadavul (God of space).


The history and contributions of Egyptian astrology to the current field of astrology remain relatively unknown to the Westernized world. “Egyptian Astrology” is referred as “Hellenistic astrology”. It’s a tradition of horoscopic astrology that was developed and practiced in the late Hellenistic period especially in Egypt. The texts and technical terminology of this tradition of astrology were largely written in Greek. The tradition originated sometime around the late 2nd or early 1st century BCE and then was practiced until the 6th or 7th century CE. This type of astrology is commonly referred to as “Hellenistic astrology” because it was developed in the late Hellenistic period, although it continued to be practiced for several centuries after the end of what historians usually classify as the Hellenistic era.


We now know that about a year has over 365 days. To be a little more exact, the value is 365.2421896698. The very old Egyptians were remarkably close to this figure almost 5000 years ago. They also developed the 24 hour time frame roughly around the same period. Another mind-blowing discovery revealed that the ancient Egyptians had star charts that date as far back as 4200 BC. Their version of astrology was short and simple. The predictions with the pole star proves this point. Predicts would carefully note down the appearing time and disappearing time of the pole star. They then became aware of that whenever the Nile flooded, the star rose before the sun and stood closer it. This gave the people a head start on the precautionary measures that needed to be taken, if necessary.

If the conjunction happens at a particular star sign, twenty years from now, it will happen at the star located 120a° from it (Aries>Cancer>Libra>Capricorn and so on. This phenomenon is called “Triplicity”. Each triplicity is ruled by four elements that is, Water, Fire, Wind, and Earth. The effects of this visible sign will depend on the element that strongly expresses rule over where the conjunction falls. Several Hellenistic astrologers ascribe its creation to a mythical sage named “Hermes Trismegistus”. Hermes is said to have written several major texts which formed the basis of the art or its evolution from the system of astrology that was inherited from the Babylonians and the Egyptians. Several authors cite Hermes as being the first to outline the houses and their meaning, and thus the houses are usually thought to date back to the very beginning of the Hellenistic tradition and indeed they are one of the major defining factors which separate Hellenistic astrology and other forms of horoscopic astrology from Babylonian astrology and other traditions in different parts of the world. This system of horoscopic astrology was then passed to another mythical figure named “Asclepius” to who some of the Hermetic writings are addressed.


Most of our understanding of Egyptian astrology is contained within the Cairo Calendar, which consists of a listing of all the days of an Egyptian year. The listings within the calendar all take the same form and can be broken up into three parts: the type of day (favorable, unfavorable. etc) a mythological event which may make a particular day more favorable or unfavorable a prescribed behaviour associated with that day. THE EGYPTIAN SYSTEM Unlike modern astrology as found within newspapers, where one can choose whether to follow the advice there in or not, the Egyptians strictly adhered to what an astrologer would advise. As is evidenced by the papyrus of the Cairo Calendar, on days where there were adverse or favorable conditions, if the astrologers told a person not to go outside, not to bathe, or to eat fish on a particular day, such advice was taken very literally and seriously. Some of the most interesting and misunderstood information about the Ancient Egyptians concerns their calendrical and astrological system. Of the greatest fallacy about Ancient Egypt and its belief in astrology concerns the supposed worship of animals. Egypt today has its own form of astrology that largely resembles the Greco/Roman classical form. There are websites and astrologers that use an individual’s birth date to determine which Egyptian god exercises authority and influence over a person’s psyche. In many cases, the subject’s astrological profile closely parallels his western natal reading, which is not too much of a surprise. The first astrologers were a group of baru-priests who resided in Egypt and acted as advisors for kings and important individuals. It was common for people during this time to worship the planetary entities of the sky, such as the sun, moon and any recognizable planets at that time — notably Venus. These planets were considered to be influenced by the gods or thought to be gods themselves, and the baru-priests would read the skies frequently to determine the outcome of future events. Hence, Egypt was no different from other cultures who employed predictive astrology as a way of unveiling the mysteries of the universe. The Role of Ptolemy The Egyptian system of astrology was nowhere near as complex as modern day astrology because it had not yet developed to such a point. The influence of foreign invaders and surrounding cultures, along with certain newfound astronomical precepts, would help advance Egyptian astrology into something far more elaborate. One of the most integral contributors to the cause was an Alexandrian mathematician named “Claudius Ptolemy”. By the time Ptolemy entered the scene, Egyptian culture had already been heavily influenced by the Hellenistic Greeks and, later, Roman occupation.

Ptolemy is famous for several works, the most influential amongst them being his “Tetrabiblos”, a four volume work that assessed and relayed his astronomical and astrological research and opinions. Ptolemy identified many stars and constellations in his day, but his astrological work is notable more in his listing of the various influences specific planetary alignments had over events, people and such. It is from this work that the aspects and angles of modern astrology draw their origin. Ptolemy also postulated ideas such as the planets themselves being responsible for certain energies and effects over countries and individuals. His work is heavily theoretical, but it is easy to see how his ideas have morphed, but continue to play out, in Western astrology. Unfortunately, Ptolemy supported the idea that the universe revolved around the planet earth. This false hypothesis was damaging enough to the field of astronomy, and it took numerous centuries for the scientific community to rectify such assertions. Still, Ptolemy’s work in Alexandria has been foundation for astrologers, even today.                                                                                                                                  MODERN EGYPTIAN ASTROLOGY The average American can experiment with the simplest ideas of Egyptian astrology today over the Internet, where many sites will identify an individual’s ruling Egyptian god by entering their date of birth into a database. The simple forms of Egyptian astrology match certain dates to an Egyptian god and display how this god’s nature affects an individual’s psyche. Unlike Western astrology that has the periods of the zodiacal influence divided over twelve approximately month-long period of time, the divisions of time in Egyptian astrology can have three or four governing entities within a single month.

                                                                      EARLY ORIGIN

“Babylonian astrology” was the first organized system of astrology, arising in the second millennium BC. There is speculation that astrology of some form appeared in the Sumerian period in the 3rd millennium BC, but the isolated references to ancient celestial omens dated to this period are not considered sufficient evidence to demonstrate an integrated theory of astrology. The history of scholarly celestial divination is therefore generally reported to begin with late Old Babylonian texts (c. 1800 BC), continuing through the Middle Babylonian and Middle Assyrian periods (c. 1200 BC).

By the 16th century BC, the extensive employment of omen-based astrology can be evidenced in the compilation of a comprehensive reference work known as “Enuma Anu Enlil”. Its contents consisted of 70 cuneiform I clay tablets comprising 7,000 celestial omens. Texts from this time also refer to an oral tradition – the origin and content of which can only be speculated upon. At this time Babylonian astrology was solely low, and prior to the 7th century BC the practitioners’ understanding of astronomy was fairly rudimentary. Because of their inability to accurately predict future celestial phenomena and planetary movement very far in advance, interpretations were done as the phenomena occurred or slightly before. By the 4th century, however, their mathematical methods had progressed enough to calculate future planetary positions with reasonable accuracy, at which point extensive calendars began to appear. Babylonian Concept of Divination

The history of Babylonian astrology shows the development of astronomical knowledge within the context of divination. A collection of 32 tablets with inscribed liver models, dating from about 1875 BC, are the oldest known detailed texts of Babylonian divination, and these demonstrate the same interpretational format as that employed in celestial omen analysis. Blemishes and marks found on the liver of the sacrificial animal were interpreted as symbolic signs which presented messages from the gods to the king. The gods were also believed to present themselves in the celestial images of the planets or stars with whom they were associated. Evil celestial omens attached to any particular planet were therefore seen as indications of dissatisfaction or disturbance of the god that planet represented. Such indications were met with attempts to appease the god and find manageable ways by which the god’s expression could be realised without significant harm to the king and his nation. Consideration of Planets and Gods The Patron God of Babylon was “Marduk”, and this god was recognized in Babylonian astrology as the planet Jupiter. Marduk was recognized as the most powerful god, but not the one and only god. The Babylonians were polytheistic, believing in many gods with different purposes, and they associated certain gods to certain planets. The Babylonians used horoscopic astrology. By observing the seasonal movement of the sun, moon, and planets, the Babylonians connected their beliefs of divine intervention in their everyday life to space and time. They would forecast their future circumstances by observing space through time and relating ominous events, such as lunar eclipses, to social, political, and environmental problems in aspects of their everyday lives, such as giving birth to deformed children. The Babylonians believed their gods’ activities influenced their own lives. These celestial events were viewed by the Babylonians as divine intervention in their lives using the influence the sun, moon, and planets, and to communicate when bad or good events were going to occur.

Horoscopic astrology is significant to Babylonian beliefs, because associating the sun, moon, and planets with their gods shaped the way the Babylonians lived their lives and viewed the world around them. Of the planets only five were recognized- Jupiter, Venus, Saturn, Mercury and Mars—to name them in the order in which they appear in the older cuneiform literature. These five planets were identified with the gods of the Babylonian as follows: Jupiter with Marduk, Venus with the goddess Ishtar, Saturn with Ninurta, Mercury with Nabu, Mars with Nergal. The movements of the Sun, Moon and five planets were regarded as representing the activity of the five gods in preparing the occurrences on earth. If, therefore, one could correctly read and interpret the activity of these powers, one knew what the gods were aiming to bring about. PIONEERS OF BABYLON Astrology grew slowly but steadily over hundreds of centuries and flourished as a full-fledged science around 2000 BC. The ‘recorded’ root of astrology lies in Babylon. The Babylonian empire (626 BC – 539 BC) was the most powerful empire after the fall of the Assyrian empire (2500 BC – 609 BC). But it should be known that the city of Babylon existed during the early days of the Assyrian Empire. Here is a law that was set forth by the pioneers from Babylon. “If the sun appears to be a reddish fire ball during dawn and white clouds set off from it while heavy winds blow from the east on the 5th day of the month of Nissanu, then the country shall shed its head on the solar eclipse occurring on the 24th of the same month and a new head shall take the olds place.” The “… shed its head…” is a metaphor for the demise of the king. The “new head” is the king’s son who will take his place after his passing. Sometimes, these predictions may have come across as false and void. On such occasions, these predictions came up with new laws and exceptions. The text on a clay tablet belonging to “King Ashurbanipal” stands testimony to this. “If a solar eclipse is seen throughout the country except for the capital, then it, along with its effects, shall be overlooked. A capital that has the (solar) eclipse hidden to it will hide its king from death.” If and when the king is left unharmed, it should be thought of as the mercy of the gods, living in the capital, to spare the king from evil through their might. So, even the kings waited on Augurs or Predicts for their unavoidable fate of their country. Little did the less unfortunate kings know that astrology though rudimental at that time, could be used against them by any who had the right influence.


It wasn’t that the Greeks were unluckier with knowledge before Alexander’s arrival or that Alexander was the savior of his fellow ignorant citizens. They hold the honor of changing astronomy and astrology. This mix was looked at as a branch of science. They were also the ones who introduced horoscopes (c. 300 BC – 250 BC) in astrology for the prediction of a person’s future. The event calendars created by Greek’s finest astronomers and mathematicians were highly useful. With those, even the people with an average calculus skill could easily evaluate a horoscope.

Here is a short list of some of the many famous scientists, researchers, philosophers, historians, mathematicians, and scholars before, during, and after the great emperor’s time. The mathematician and philosopher, Pythagoras (570 BC – 495 BC), formulated the Pythagoras theorem and many others in the line of trigonometry which are still being used in modern astronomy. He was also the first to coin the term ‘cosmos’ and the first to say that the world was round.


Socrates (470 BC – 399 BC) was a revered philosopher who had a huge influence on Greek and early Islamic philosophies. Aristotle (384 BC – 322 BC) was a protégé of Plato, who was one of Socrates’ students. Aristotle went on to tutor Alexander the Great. He was not only a philosopher but also a scientist. Theophrastus (371 BC – 287 BC), Aristotle’s successor, is often considered the ‘father of botany’. His interests were wide, extending from biology and physics to ethics and metaphysics. Two of his surviving botanical works were an important influence on renaissance science. He has also mentioned about how astrology was born and brought up in the city of Babylon.  Berosus (4th century BC – 3rd century BC) established a school of astrology in the island of Kos, situated off the coast of Asia Minor, by the patronage of the king of Egypt. He has also written three books on the history of Babylonia titled “Babyloniaca” which gives information on the state of astrology during various periods in Babylon.  Asinopolos was a Babylonian astrologer who immigrated to Greece along with Berosus. He developed a new method, wherein the birth time in a person’s horoscope was the time at which the egg was fertilized. Ø Hipparchus (190 BC – 120 BC) was an astronomer, geographer, and mathematician. His solar and lunar theories, combined with trigonometry, he may have been the first person to develop a reliable method to predict solar eclipses. He is also called as the father of trigonometry. Ø Claudius Ptolemy (100 AD – 170 AD) was a Greco-Roman mathematician, astronomer, geographer, astrologer and poet of a single epigram in the Greek anthology. His work, Almagest, is the only surviving comprehensive ancient treatise on astronomy. He presented his astronomical models in convenient tables which could be used to compute the future or past positions of the planets. His ‘Handy tables’ provided the model for later astronomical tables. He also gave a parapegma, a star calendar or almanac.

The mathematical amazing abilities of the Greeks led to new discoveries in the field of astronomy. Along with many other fields, astrology grew and spread throughout the Roman Empire quickly. It was a blend of astronomy, math, history, philosophy and divinity. ASTRONOMICA AND ALMAGESTAstronomica” was the first known work on Astrology. It was an extensive work on the heavenly phenomena, specifically on astrology and zodiac. The book was written around 10 AD – 20 AD, likely by Marcus Manilius. Though there are some references of history experts, math experts, and astronomers having read this work, the author remained unquoted.

The first two of the five parts of the book focused on astrology. According to Manilius, the earth is inside a hollow sphere that has stars fixed on the inside of it. The stars so fixed show constellations which he grouped as signs of the zodiac. The illustrations for each sign were discussed in the third part. His work helped in studying the distant star groups which were almost completely hidden from the naked eye. About 100 years later, Claudius Ptolemy wrote one of the most influential texts of all time – “The Almagest”. It not only shed light on Hipparchus’ lost works on astronomy but also on the details of the 1022 stars that he claims to have intensively studied. The two books played a big part in the development and widening of Astrology.


Enduring Zoroastrian writings show that astrology was utilized by old Zoroastrians and their priests, the magi, primarily as a strategy for measuring historical and calendric time. They developed astrology of the world and utilized astrology as a way to date occasions in Aryan history. The magi likewise used Astrology to predict cyclical events, for example, seasons and noteworthy climatic changes that would cause community wide changes. Today, a few Zoroastrians likewise acknowledge astrology as methods for predicting events or, say, to decide whether two individuals are compatible. Different Zoroastrians reject such use consigning it to superstition. In any case, astrology is a permanent part of Zoroastrian legacy. An examination of Zoroastrian astrology furnishes us with extremely fascinating experiences and significant connections regardless of beliefs.


Astrology sees mankind as being not only influenced by hereditary factors and the environment, but also by the state of our solar system at the moment of birth. The planets are regarded as basic life-forces, the tools we live by as well as the basis of our very substance. These planetary forces take on different forms, depending on their zodiacal position and on the way they relate to one another. The aspects formed between the planets describe these relationships, the positions of the planets in relation to the place of birth tell us of their expression in the spheres of life depicted by the astrological houses. By interpreting the roles of these planets and their qualities like the elements, signs and houses and creating a synthesis, astrology is able to present a complete and comprehensive picture of the person and his potential, based on the natal horoscope.

Free Will, Choice & Circumstance Since Zoroastrianism philosophy recognizes free will and a person’s individual and complete responsibility for her or his every thought, word and deed, it automatically rejects any suggestion that a person’s choice of thoughts, words and deeds were a result of movements of astral bodies in the skies. However, if this writer may be permitted to hazard an opinion about the place of astrology in such a philosophy, the orthodox Zoroastrian approach may be to seek possible answers to one’s lot in life or predicaments in astrology, while maintaining that within the boundaries of circumstance, an individual has the ability to make choices in every thought, word and deed based on free will and the orientation of her or his spirit – choices that have the ability to change circumstance. Astrology may be used to indicate potential rather than absolute fated destiny, or perhaps favorable and unfavorable timing to undertake a venture. Since Zoroastrianism philosophy recognizes free will and a person’s individual and complete responsibility for her or his every thought, word and deed, it automatically rejects any suggestion that a person’s choice of thoughts, words and deeds were a result of movements of astral bodies in the skies. However, if this writer may be permitted to hazard an opinion about the place of astrology in such a philosophy, the orthodox Zoroastrian approach may be to seek possible answers to one’s lot in life or predicaments in astrology, while maintaining that within the boundaries of circumstance, an individual has the ability to make choices in every thought, word and deed based on free will and the orientation of her or his spirit – choices that have the ability to change circumstance. Astrology may be used to indicate potential rather than absolute fated destiny, or perhaps favorable and unfavorable timing to undertake a venture. References to Astrology in Zoroastrian Texts Role of Astrology in Zoroastrianism:

There are no references to astrology in surviving Zoroastrian scriptures. However, astrology plays a prominent role in Middle Persian (8th to 10th century CE) non-scriptural Zoroastrian religious texts such as the Bundahishn (Creation) and Jamasp Namah (the Book of Jamasp). These texts are based on earlier (now extinct) religious texts. The role of Astrology in Zoroastrianism is cultural and not religious. The cultural role is nevertheless deep-seated. In addition to astrological references in surviving non-scriptural Middle Persian texts, we find references in Arabic texts describing other Middle Persian texts that are now extinct. Indeed, the Kitab al-Mawalid wa Ahkamiha is the oldest treatise of genethlialogy that survives in Arabic. Genethlialogy is the science of calculating the position of heavenly bodies on nativities. The Arabic texts state this Kitab (BOOK) was written in the Din Dabirih, the Zoroastrian-Avestan script, by ‘Zaradusht’ (Zoroaster) himself – a most unlikely claim in the same vein as ascribing the authorship of the ‘Oracles of Zoroaster’ to Zoroaster. The references to astrology in Middle Persian Zoroastrian texts are to the horoscope of the world, the ‘zaych-i gehan’, cosmology in general and the calendar. The ‘Jamasp Namah’ also makes references to Jamasp, Zoroaster / Zarathushtra’s successor as high priest, being a noted astrologer. The ‘Qissa-e Sanjan’, a text that describes the flight of Zoroastrians to India after the Arab invasion of Iran, does make several references to high priests consulting astrological charts to determine the best course of action during the flight of the Zoroastrians – Zoroastrians who came to be known as the Parsees of India Non-Zoroastrian References to Ancient Persian-Zoroastrian Astrology.


Some ancient and medieval references cite as their sources Zoroaster and the magi, while others cite Persian sources. Zoroastrianism was synonymous with Persia prior to the Arab Islamic invasion of Iran c. 640 CE. Zoroastrian astrology survives in a number of non-Zoroastrian works such as those of Masha’allah ibn Athari, Abu Ma’shar al Balkhi, Al Biruni, al-Kamali and Abraham ibn Ezra. According to author Courtney Roberts, “The astrology of the Magi experienced an enthusiastic revival in the work of the Islamic astronomers of the Golden Age of Baghdad (8th – 9th century CE). There, the upstart Abbasid caliphs, eager to legitimate their new dynasty, gladly adopted the Persian astrology of the Magi to their own ends, proclaiming themselves the rightful heirs to the imperial majesty of ancient Persia.” The same can be said about the Ghaznivid rulers from (today’s) Afghanistan. The significance of this adoption of Persian astrology by Islamic regimes is the context in which the adoption happened: many Islamists believe astrology to be haram – a sin, something forbidden by religious edict. The Abbasids employed the services of Masha’allah ibn Athari (c.740–815 CE) Persian Jewish astrologer, to determine the propitious time for the founding of Baghdad which he determined was July 30, 762 CE. Masha’allah was then an astronomer resident in the city of Basra, a city that is located in the south of modern day Iraq. European translators of his work styled his name as ‘Messahala‘. He continued to have an influential position in the court of the Abbasids. Abu Ma’shar al Balkhi (Latinized as Albumasar, 787-886 CE) was an Eastern Iran from the ancient city of Balkh that was home to Jamasp and is today a part of Northern Afghanistan. His treatise on astrology written in Arabic is titled, Kitab al-Mudkhal al-Kabir ila ‘ilm Ahkam an-Nujjum, was translated into Latin under the title ‘Introductorium in Astronomiam’ and was written in Baghdad in 848 CE. As a Khorasani Iranian, Balkhi might have had access to now extinct Zoroastrian works. Surviving Knowledge & Tradition TRADITION IN THE MODERN WORLD Today, the tradition of Zoroastrian astrology appears to have been largely lost and this author does not know of any modern Zoroastrian priest who practices astrology. To understand Zoroastrian astrology, we have but one surviving Zoroastrian text the “Bundahishn”, scattered references in other Zoroastrian texts and scripture, Western Mithraic frescoes, Greek and even post-Arab invasion Iranian accounts of the Zoroastrian tradition. Despite the paucity of surviving texts, there are scattered but sufficient indications that Zoroastrian astrology or perhaps even pre-Zoroastrian Aryan astrology, may be an original discipline and one whose concepts survive in Hindu, Chinese and Western astrology.

The Golden Islamic Period (8th century – 14th century):

After the Greeks, it was the Arabs who took astrology to the next level. They began to lay attacks and bring other parts of the world under their rule. Almost the same as what Alexander did over 900 before their rise, they began to add collective knowledge of the outer world to their own. Sahl Ibn Bishr is thought to be the first Arab translator. Along with many other pieces of age old information, astrology was shared to the Islamic world through translators like Sahl himself. Medieval Islamic astrology and astronomy continued Hellenistic (period between 323 BC and 31 BC) and Roman era traditions based on Amalgest. The underlying principles of their astrology were a combination and change of Babylonian, Arabian and Indian traditions. Knowledge on the field of astronomy blew up more and more during their age.

An instrument called ‘Astrolable‘ was invented by Al Fazari. The word Astrolable means, “The one that catches the sky”. With its help, one could identify stars or planets, determine out the latitude if time is known, survey, or triangulate. It was during this period that medicine and astrology were linked by associating the properties of herbs with star signs and planets. MASHA’ALLAH (740 AD – 815 AD): The second Abbasid important Muslim religious leader Al-Mansur is credited to have founded the great city of Baghdad. The Arabs were already blessed with city planning and astronomy but before the construction works were put into action, the important Muslim religious leaderate approached Masha’allah Ibn Athari to fix the date and time for the beginning of the works of the then future great city. Masha’allah was a court astrologer for the Abbasid important Muslim religious leaderate. He has written some works on astrology in Arabic, some of which have only survived through Latin translations. The first written work on Astrolable was drafted by him.

Being a part of a group of astrologers headed by Nobakht Ahvazi, he was of great help in picking a lucky electoral chart for the founding of the (Round) city of Baghdad. As per their advice, the important Muslim religious leader Al-Mansur commissioned its construction on July 30, 762 AD. The city hosted a major observatory which is considered as the first astronomical center. It also showed off a library (House of Wisdom) that acted as a public academy and intellectual center. Along with these, centers of learning in medicine, astronomy and astrology were set up in the city. His book “On Conjunctions, Religions, and People” discusses the comparison between the important world events and the role of Jupiter-Saturn conjunction. The two planets fall in line with Earth once every twenty years. It was seen that huge changes in the history of people happened during this point of time. The birth and death of great emperors and religious leaders, fall of dynasties, earthquakes, natural disasters, and birth of deadly epidemics like plague are a few examples of the huge changes that happen during the lining up of the two huge gas giants. If the conjunction happens at a particular star sign, twenty years from now, it will happen at the star located 120a° from it (Aries>Cancer>Libra>Capricorn and so on. This phenomenon is called “Triplicity”. Each triplicity is ruled by four elements that is, Water, Fire, Wind, and Earth. The effects of this visible sign will depend on the element that strongly expresses rule over where the conjunction falls. If it falls over the Water domain, the planet will witness floods, tsunamis or other water related disasters. If it falls under Fire’s domain, there will be earthquakes, volcanoes, and heavy thunders. Wind’s sector will dispense epidemics, rebellions and distresses whereas Earth would send drought, widespread death from starving, dictators.

The Jupiter-Saturn cycle takes 360 years to complete. It means that a star will have one conjunction every 360 years. This is called as “Maximal Conjunction”. It is at this time that events that change the course of history happen. The birth of Islam is a good example of maximal conjunction. Though the book did not survive unharmed and in one piece, its explanations and findings are accepted everywhere even today.

Chinese astrology and constellations were often used for divination.

More than 3,000 years ago, Chinese people invented the 10 Heavenly Stems and 12 Earthly Branches for chronological purposes. These signs are used to designate the hours, days, months and years. However, since most people at that time were illiterate, the signs were difficult to use. Later, to make things easier to memorize, people used animals to symbolize the 12 Earthly Branches. The animals in order are the mouse, ox, tiger, rabbit, dragon, snake, horse, sheep, monkey, rooster, dog and pig. Many Chinese people strongly believe that the time of a person’s birth is the primary factor in determining that person’s personality. Many fortune-tellers, when telling your fortune, say what they need to know is your exact time of birth. Then, whether you are successful in your life and career, or whether you will be happy is clear to the fortune-tellers.


According to one legend, during a Chinese New Year celebration, Buddha invited all the animals to his kingdom, but unfortunately, for reasons only known to the animals, a total of 12 turned up. The mouse was naturally the first, followed by the ox, then the tiger, the rabbit and so on and finally the pig. Out of gratitude, Buddha decided to name the year after each of the animals in their order of arrival, and people born of that year would inherit the personality traits of that particular animal. These animals are also supposed to have some influence over the period of time they were named after. It is essential in China that every person knows which animal sign he is born under. That is because it has been implicitly agreed upon that no important steps of life should be taken without consulting first the Chinese Zodiac. Some Chinese consider this superstition, but many truly believe that the signs reveal the hidden secrets of a person’s character. By the 5th century, the Chinese had cataloged 1464 stars. In Beijing, there were about 5,000 astrologers. Ancient astrologers could correctly predict when tides, seasons, and other things, just by looking at the stars and planets. One of the uses for astrology was for farming – the proper time to plant and harvest crops. A lot of the Chinese looked to the stars, but some were drawn to the Earth, trying to solve riddles and mysteries of math. They did not know that everything was made from hundreds and millions of atoms, but instead they thought everything was made up of the five elements: fire, earth, metal, water and wood. They looked at how these elements could change, and explained how nature worked in those terms. Wood goes through a basic change to become fire (flames), fire turns into the earth (ashes), earth makes the metal (iron and other metals) mined from the earth. Metal brings water (metal collects dew if outside overnight). And to make the circle, water produces wood (wood plants need water to grow). The scientists did not think of the five elements as DNA, but more like changing things in nature; and that is how the Chinese viewed life and nature.


The roots of this interpretive art, are based deeply in the classical philosophy of Confucius, Lao-tse and the Yi Jing (I Ching). According to Chinese legend, the order of the twelve signs was determined by Buddha, upon celebration of the Chinese New Year (which falls on different dates, from mid-January to mid-February.) The Buddha invited all of the animals in the kingdom together for a meeting, but only 12 creatures attended. Chinese Astrology


Chinese astrology is based on the astronomy and traditional calendars. The Chinese astrology does not calculate the positions of the sun, moon and planets at the time of birth. Therefore, there is no astrology in the European sense in China. Chinese astrology has a close relation with Chinese philosophy (theory of the harmony of sky, humans and earth) and different “principles” to Western: the cvx teachings, yin and yang, astronomy: five planet, the 10 Celestial stems, the 12 Earthly Branches, the luni-solar calendar (moon calendar and sun calendar), the time calculation after year, month, day and shiche Chinese astrology is the divination of the future from the Chinese calendar, which is based on astronomy, and ancient Chinese philosophy. In particular, it is based on the sexagenarian cycle of 60 years that has been documented since the time of the Shang Dynasty at the latest. This basic cycle has been constructed from two cycles: the 10 heavenly stems (the five elements in their yin and yang forms) and the 12 earthly branches, or the 12-year cycle of animals referred to as the Chinese zodiac. The Chinese animal zodiac also operates on a cycle of months or ‘moons’ and of hours of the day. The Chinese zodiac refers to a pure calendric cycle; there are no equivalent constellations like those of the occidental zodiac. In imperial times there were astrologers who watched the sky for heavenly omens that would predict the future of the state, but this was a quite different practice of divination from the popular present-day methods.


Chinese astrology was elaborated during the Zhou dynasty (1046–256 BC) and flourished during the Han Dynasty (2nd century BC to 2nd century AD). During the Han period, the familiar elements of traditional Chinese culture – the Yin-Yang philosophy, the theory of the 5 elements, the concepts of Heaven and Earth, and Confucian morality – were brought together to formalize the philosophical principles of Chinese medicine and divination, astrology and alchemy. The 5 classical planets are associated with the Wu Xing: Venus—Metal (White Tiger) Jupiter—Wood (Azure Dragon) Mercury—Water (Black Tortoise) Mars—Fire (Vermilion Bird) (may be associated with the phoenix which was also an imperial symbol along with the Dragon) Saturn—Earth (Yellow Dragon) According to Chinese astrology, a person’s destiny can be determined by the position of the major planets at the person’s birth along with the positions of the Sun, Moon, comets, the person’s time of birth, and zodiac Sign. The system of the twelve-year cycle of animal signs was built from observations of the orbit of Jupiter. Following the orbit of Jupiter around the sun, Chinese astronomers divided the celestial circle into 12 sections, and rounded it to 12 years. Jupiter is associated with the constellation Sheti. A system of computing one’s fate and destiny based on one’s birthday, birth season, and birth hours, known as Zi Wei Dou Shu or Purple Star Astrology, is still used regularly in modern-day Chinese astrology to divine one’s fortune. The 28 Chinese constellations, Xiu, are quite different from Western constellations. For example, the Big Bear is known as Dou ; the belt of Orion is known as Shen, or the “Happiness, Fortune, Longevity” trio of demigods. The seven northern constellations are referred to as Xuan Wu. Xuan Wu is also known as the spirit of the northern sky or the spirit of Water in Taoism belief. THE TAI BAI FAIRY In addition to astrological readings of the heavenly bodies, the stars in the sky form the basis of many fairy tales. For example, the Summer Triangle is the trio of the cowherd, the weaving maiden fairy, and the “tai bai” fairy. The two forbidden lovers were separated by the silvery river. Each year on the seventh day of the seventh month in the Chinese calendar, the birds form a bridge across the Milky Way. The cowherd carries their two sons across the bridge to reunite with their fairy mother. The tai bai fairy acts as the chaperone of these two immortal lovers.


Jyotisha or Jyotishya is the traditional Hindu system of astrology, also known as Hindu astrology, and more recently Vedic astrology. The term Hindu astrology has been in use as the English equivalent of Jyotiṣa since the early 19th century, whereas Vedic astrology is a relatively recent term, entering common usage in the 1980s with self-help publications on Āyurveda or yoga. Vedanga Jyotishya is one of the earliest texts about astronomy within the Vedas. However, some authors have claimed that the horoscopic astrology practiced in the Indian subcontinent came from Hellenistic influences, post-dating the Vedic period. In the epics Ramayana and Mahabharata, only electional astrology, omens, dreams and physiognomy are used.


Jyotiṣa is one of the Vedanga, the six auxiliary disciplines used to support Vedic rituals. There are mentions of eclipse-causing “demons” in the Atharvaveda and Chandogya Upanishad, the latter mentioning Rahu. The term graha, which is now taken to mean planet, originally meant demon. The Ṛigveda also mentions an eclipse-causing demon, Svarbhanu, however the specific term graha was not applied to Svarbhanu until the later Mahabharata and Ramayaṇa. Early jyotiṣa is concerned with the preparation of a calendar to determine dates for sacrificial rituals, with nothing written regarding planets. The foundation of Hindu astrology is the notion of bandhu of the Vedas (scriptures), which is the connection between the microcosm and the macrocosm. Practice relies primarily on the sidereal zodiac, which differs from the tropical zodiac used in Western (Hellenistic) astrology in that an ayanamsa adjustment is made for the gradual precession of the vernal equinox. Hindu astrology includes several nuanced sub-systems of interpretation and prediction with elements not found in Hellenistic astrology, such as its system of lunar mansions (Nakṣatra). It was only after the transmission of Hellenistic astrology that the order of planets in India was fixed in that of the seven-day week. Hellenistic astrology and astronomy also transmitted the twelve zodiacal signs beginning with Aries and the twelve astrological places beginning with the ascendant. The first evidence of the introduction of Greek astrology to India is the Yavanajataka which dates to the early centuries CE.The Yavanajataka (lit. “Sayings of the Greeks”) was translated from Greek to Sanskrit by Yavanesvara during the 2nd century CE, and is considered the first Indian astrological treatise in the Sanskrit language. However the only version that survives is the verse version of Sphujidhvaja which dates to AD 270. The first Indian astronomical text to define the weekday was the Aryabhaṭiya of Aryabhaṭa (born AD 476). According to Michio Yano, Indian astronomers must have been occupied with the task of Indianizing and Sanskritizing Greek astronomy during the 300 or so years between the first Yavanajataka and the Aryabhatiya. The astronomical texts of these 300 years are lost.

The later Pancasiddhantika of Varahamihira summarizes the five known Indian astronomical schools of the sixth century. Indian astronomy preserved some of the older pre-Ptolemaic elements of Greek astronomy. The main texts upon which classical Indian astrology is based are early medieval compilations, notably the Bṛhat Parasara Horasastra, and Saravali by Kalyaṇavarma. The Horashastra is a composite work of 71 chapters, of which the first part (chapters 1–51) dates to the 7th to early 8th centuries and the second part (chapters 52–71) to the later 8th century. The Saravali likewise dates to around 800 CE. English translations of these texts were published by N.N. Krishna Rau and V.B. Choudhari in 1963 and 1961, respectively. Modern Indian Astrology Astrology remains an important facet of folk belief in the contemporary lives of many Hindus. In Hindu culture, newborns are traditionally named based on their jyotiṣa charts, and astrological concepts are pervasive in the organization of the calendar and holidays, and in making major decisions such as those about marriage, opening a new business, or moving into a new home. Many Hindus believe that heavenly bodies, including the planets, have an influence throughout the life of a human being, and these planetary influences are the “fruit of karma”. The Navagraha, planetary deities, are considered subordinate to Ishvara (the Hindu concept of a supreme being) in the administration of justice. Thus, it is believed that these planets can influence earthly life. Elements There are sixteen Varga (Sanskrit: varga, ‘part, division’), or divisional, charts used in Hindu astrology. Rasi – Zodiacal signs

The Nirayana, or sidereal zodiac, is an imaginary belt of 360 degrees, which, like the Sayana, or tropical zodiac, is divided into 12 equal parts. Each part (of 30 degrees) is called a sign or rasi. Vedic and Western zodiacs differ in the method of measurement. While synchronically, the two systems are identical, Jyotiṣa primarily uses the sidereal zodiac (in which stars are considered to be the fixed background against which the motion of the planets is measured), whereas most Western astrology uses the tropical zodiac (the motion of the planets is measured against the position of the Sun on the spring equinox). After two millennia, as a result of the precession of the equinoxes, the origin of the ecliptic longitude has shifted by about 22 degrees. As a result, the placement of planets in the Jyotiṣa system is consistent with the actual zodiac, while in western astrology the planets fall into the following constellation about two-thirds of the time. Nakṣhatras – lunar mansions The nakshatras or lunar mansions are 27 equal divisions of the night sky used in Hindu astrology, each identified by its prominent star. Historical Hindu astrology enumerated either 27 or 28 nakṣhatras. In modern astrology, a rigid system of 27 nakṣhatras is generally used, each covering 13° 20′ of the ecliptic. The missing 28th nakshatra is Abhijeeta. Each naksatra is divided into equal quarters or padas of 3° 20′. Of greatest importance is the Abhiseka Nakshatra, which is held as king over the other nakshatras. Worshipping and gaining favour over this nakshatra is said to give power to remedy all the other nakshatras, and is of concern in predictive astrology and mitigating Karma. The 27 nakshatras are;

1.Ashvini, 2.Bharni, 3.Krittika, 4. Rohini, 5.Mrighashirsha, 6.Arda, 7.Punarvasu, 8.Pushya, 9.Aslesha, 10.Magha, 11.Purva Phalguni, 12.Uttara Phalguni, 13.Hastam, 14.Chitra, 15.Swati, 16.Vishakha, 17.Anuradha, 18.Jyeshtha, 19.Mula, 20.Purva Ashada, 21.Uttara Ashada, 22.Sravana, 23.Dhanishta, 24.Shatabhisa, 25.Purva bhadrapa, 26.Uttara bhadrapa, 27.Revati etc. Dasas – planetary periods The word dasha means ‘state of being’ and it is believed that the dasa largely governs the state of being of a person. The Dasa system shows which planets may be said to have become particularly active during the period of the Dasa. The ruling planet eclipses the mind of the person, compelling him or her to act per the nature of the planet. There are several dasha systems, each with its own utility and area of application. There are Dasa of grahas (planets) as well as Dasas of the Rasis (zodiac signs). The primary system used by astrologers is the Vimsottari Dasa system, which has been considered universally applicable in the kaliyuga to all horoscopes. The first Maha-Dasa is determined by the position of the natal Moon in a given Nakṣatra. The lord of the Nakṣatra governs the Dasa. Each Maha-Dasa is divided into sub-periods called bhuktis, or antar-dasas, which are proportional divisions of the maha-dasa. Further proportional sub-divisions can be made, but error margins based on accuracy of the birth time grow exponentially. The next sub-division is called pratyantar-dasa, which can in turn be divided into sookshma-antardasa, which can in turn be divided into praana-antardasa, which can be sub-divided into deha-antardasa. Such sub-divisions also exist in all other Dasa systems. Grahas – planets The Navagraha describe nine celestial bodies used in Hindu astrology.

The Navagraha are said to be forces that capture or eclipse the mind and the decision making of human beings, thus the term graha. When the grahas are active in their Dasas or periodicities they are said to be particularly empowered to direct the affairs of people and events. Gemstones are considered of use in strengthening the favorable influence of planets in the horoscope. The beneficial planets of a horoscope are the lords of the kendra (first, fourth, seventh and tenth house) and the trikonas (first, fifth and ninth house). The Navagraha, their corresponding astronomical bodies (when such exist), and their associated gemstones are; Surya, the Sun – ruby Chandra (a.k.a. Soma), the Moon – pearl Mangala, Mars – red coral Budha, Mercury – emerald Guru (a.k.a. Bṛhaspati), Jupiter – yellow sapphire Shukra, Venus – diamond Shani, Saturn – blue sapphire Rahu – hessonite Ketu – cat’s eye Rahu and Ketu do not correspond to real astronomical bodies. They are described as “shadow planets” with an orbital cycle of 18 years and are always 180 degrees from each other, being diametrically opposed twins. Rahu’s cycle approximates the pattern of solar and lunar eclipses for which Rahu is believed to be the cause. Gocharas – transits


A natal chart shows the position of the grahas at the moment of birth. Since that moment, the grahas have continued to move around the zodiac, interacting with the natal chart grahas. This period of interaction is called gochara (Sanskrit: gochara, ‘transit’). The study of transits is based on the transit of the Moon (Chandra), which spans roughly two days, and also on the movement of Mercury (Budha) and Venus (Śukra) across the celestial sphere, which is relatively fast as viewed from Earth. The movement of the slower planets – Jupiter (Guru), Saturn (Sani) and Rahu–Ketu — is always of considerable importance. Astrologers study the transit of the Dasa lord from various reference points in the horoscope. Yogas – planetary combinations In Hindu astronomy, yoga (Sanskrit: yoga, ‘union’) is a combination of planets placed in a specific relationship to each other. Raja yogas are perceived as givers of fame, status and authority, and are typically formed by the association of the Lord of Kendras/quadrants, when reckoned from the Lagna/ascendant, and the Lords of the Tṛkoṇa/trines. The Raja yogas are culminations of the blessings of Viṣṇu and Lakṣmi. Some planets, such as Mars for Leo Lagna, do not need another graha to create Rajayoga, but are capable of giving Rajayogasuo-moto due to their own lordship of the 4th Bhava and the 9th Bhava from the Lagna, the two being a Kendra and Tṛkoṇa Bhava respectively.

Dhana Yogas are formed by the association of wealth-giving planets such as the Dhanesa or the 2nd Lord and the Labhesa or the 11th Lord from the Lagna. Dhana Yogas are also formed due to the auspicious placement of the Darapada/ A7, when reckoned from the Aruḍha Lagna (AL). The combination of the Lagnesa and the Bhagyesa also leads to wealth through the Lakṣmi Yoga. Sanyasa Yogas are formed due to the placement of four or more grahas, excluding the Sun, in a Kendra Bhava from the Lagna. There are some overarching yogas in Jyotiṣa such as Amavasya Doṣa, Kala Sarpa Yoga-Kala Amṛta Yoga and Graha Malika Yoga that can take precedence oveYamaha yogar planetary placements in the horoscope. Bhavas – houses The Hindu Jataka, or birth chart, is the Bhava Cakra (Sanskrit: ‘division’ ‘wheel’), the complete 360° circle of life, divided into houses, and represents a way of enacting the influences in the wheel. Each house has associated karaka (Sanskrit: ‘significator’) planets that can alter the interpretation of a particular house. Each Bhava spans an arc of 30° with twelve Bhavas in any chart of the horoscope. These are a crucial part of any horoscopic study since the Bhavas, understood as ‘state of being’, personalize the Rasis/ Rashis to the native and each Rasi/ Rashi apart from indicating its true nature reveals its impact on the person based on the Bhava occupied. The best way to study the various facets of Jyotiṣa is to see their role in chart evaluation of actual persons and how these are construed. Drstis – aspects

Drsti (Sanskrit: Dṛṣṭi, ‘sight’) is an aspect to an entire house. Grahas cast only forward aspects, with the furthest aspect being considered the strongest. For example, Mars aspects the 4th, 7th, and 8th houses from its position, and its 8th house aspect is considered more powerful than its 7th aspect, which is in turn more powerful than its 4th aspect. The principle of Dristi (aspect) was devised on the basis of the aspect of an army of planets as deity and demon in a war field. Thus the Sun, a deity king with only one full aspect, is more powerful than the demon king Saturn, which has three full aspects. Aspects can be cast both by the planets (Graha Dṛiṣṭi) and by the signs (Rasi Dṛṣṭi). Planetary aspects are a function of desire, while sign aspects are a function of awareness and cognizance. There are some higher aspects of Graha Dṛṣṭi (planetary aspects) that are not limited to the Viseṣa Dṛṣṭi or the special aspects. Rasi Dṛṣṭi works based on the following formulaic structure: all movable signs aspect fixed signs except the one adjacent, and all dual and mutable signs aspect each other without exception


It is shocking to see how they crossed seas when there were no compasses or maps. Investigators suggest that they could have used the position of the sun during the day and the movement of stars during the night. To be exact, they used astronomy. And to use anything that would risk their life, the user must have a good apprehension of that which is being used. During that period, astronomy and astrology were interconnected. So, it is only logical that they had a deep understanding of the heavenly bodies. One can say that there must have been at least two or three millennia for studying the stars and outer planets before such expeditions were to be made. This easily puts their practice of astrology around 4th – 5th millennium BC.


Now that we have seen the history of astrology outside of India, let us see the history having to do with the Tamil people of prehistoric and ancient old India. Acheulean technology that involved handcrafted stone weapons were discovered in modern North Tamilnadu, making it the earliest known evidence that prove for the presence of hominins in India. These belonged to the Paleolithic (Old Stone Age) period – c. 150,000 BC – 100,000 BC. Paleolithic industries belonging to c. 30,000 were found in the same period. Pre-pottery and micro lithic industries were excavated and dated back to c. 8,000 BC to 3,000 BC. “The first people who roamed with weapons before the time of mountains and farming were the Tamils”

This is a translated small section from Purapporul Venpa Maalai (9th century AD). The Tamil people were not only great hunters but were also the first civilization and the first refined one to have existed. Long before the arrival of Aryans, the Pandya Kings ruled Kumarikandam (Prehistoric continent of South India) with South Madurai (now Kanyakumari) as its capital. Pre-Sangam, Sangam and Post Sangam periods were all located in this city. Ancient books and poems state that the peak of the old civilizations was lost to the sea. In order to regain the lost lands, the Pandya kings stretched their regime into the Chera’s and Cholas‘. After seizing of enough lands, the capital was changed to North Madurai (Now Madurai) and the Pandya kings ruled like how they used to, before the sea stole more than half of their homeland. Unfortunately, there are no solid artifacts to prove its existence. Another important aspect to notice here is the mind boggling sea trade between the Tamils and the outer world, usually the Greek before the time of Aryans.

It might be hard to believe this but there are songs in Rig Veda that indicate the trade between the Tamils and the West. Considering the time period of the scriptures to be somewhere between 1700 BC and 1200 BC, it is highly possible that the trading was still in practice well before the Aryan immigration. The Veda also states the Dravidians (ancient Tamil folk) had trade route from the North to foreign lands via Indus River. It is also probable that the knowledge of the Tamils reached the Greeks who developed it and then transferred it to the Persians, who in turn settled in India as Aryans and shared said knowledge with Tamils some few centuries later. Also, it is probable that the Knowledge of the Greeks reached the Tamils before the Indo-European’s arrival. With trade successfully growing roughly around four thousand years before today, the Greeks and the Tamils shared their cultures, ideologies, beliefs and traditions with each other. Along with said traditions, products like incense, silk, ghee, rare minerals, etc., were shared, traded, and sold as the Tamils climbed aboard wooden ships and sailed towards their trade partners across thousands of kilometers away. Trivia: Sama Veda, Yajur Veda and Adharvana Veda contain concepts like acute angle, triangle and hexagons. These might be imparted from the Greeks and if not, it is simply a reflection of their knowledge in math and geometry.

Legends in Astrology THE LEGEND

The great sage Agathiyar used to go to Thiruchendur in order to understand the meanings of Tamil works. On one such occasion, he suddenly wanted to learn about the working of things in every world through astrology. He immediately prayed to Lord Murugan to appear before him and teach what he wished to know. Lord Murugan is known to have soothsaid the future of his father, Lord Shiva, by looking at the planets, which as legend has it, came to be true. The God heard him and graced the mortal with his divine presence. As he began to recite the sashtras of astrology, the sage noted down every word. These notes were compiled to a book. The book later came to be known as the prominent scripture Kumaraswamiyam The famous 18 siddhas who came after him read this book and wrote many books of their own, which is thought to have helped grow and spread astrology in the very ancient old KumariKandam. It is believed by many that only through the old Tamils must the West have known about this art. The transition period from civilization to the period of ideology was from 4th century AD to 12th century AD. The father of Indian astronomy, Aryabhatta, was born in 5th century. He was responsible for the booming growth in astronomy, mathematics, and astrology in his time. His works were highly famous and important in the Golden Islamic age also

. After Aryabhatta, it was Varahamihira

who excelled in the three fields and caused a rapid growth in each of them. He is regarded as the father of Indian astrology. His discoveries and mathematical ways of doing things were an advantage to astrologers everywhere. Varahamihira’s son Prithuyasas carefully studied the books written by the 18 siddhas and wrote the famous Hora Sara which consisted of his own ideas and changes of that written in the Siddhas’ works. This way astrology developed and changed with time in its own way in the Indian subcontinent.


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